The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp <p>The <em>Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy</em> (AJRP) is a peer-review scholarly journal. A publication of the Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Delta State University, Abraka Delta State, Nigeria. The Journal is published biannually (July and December) in both print and online versions. AJRP publishes original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, technical notes, and book reviews in theology, religious studies and philosophy including other related areas of the humanities. The manuscript should include an abstract written in English of not more than 250 words as well as five keywords, placed immediately after the abstract. Typically, the abstract should state the research problem, the aim, research methods, main findings and implication, conclusion and major recommendations of the study. Submissions should be typed double-spaced, fully justified, in Times New Roman and Font Size 12 on A4 paper as a Word document. The manuscript size should be between 5,000 and 8,000 words (inclusive of abstract, keywords, notes, references, etc.). The documentation style adopted by the Journal for all manuscripts is the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th Edition OR the Modern Language Association (MLA) 7th Edition. Authors should use one style consistently. Each manuscript should be accompanied by information about the author: (1) full name (family name last); (2) institutional affiliation (3) email addresses and phone numbers. Contributions should be submitted as e-mail attachments in MS format to <strong>ajrp@delsu.edu.ng</strong>. Contributors should kindly note that, as a rule, AJRP will not publish multiple articles by the same author in one issue. Copyrights for articles published in Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> <p> </p> <p>The <em>Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy</em> (AJRP) is indexed by the following indexing bodies: <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=8AMTHssAAAAJ&amp;hl=en">Google Scholar</a> : <a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=126402&amp;lang=en">Index Copernicus</a> : <a href="https://philpapers.org/">Phil Papers</a>: </p> Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Delta State, University en-US The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) THE EXISTENTIAL-PRAGMATIC REALITY OF DEATH IN URHOBO MYTH AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR POPULATION ETHICS http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/40 <p><em>One serious problem that the world is facing is the environmental crisis. One of the things that negatively impacts environmental well-being is overpopulation. As there is growth in the human population, human beings have to make use of more natural resources. Humans fell more trees to give way to human beings, thus affecting biodiversity and denying other beings in the forest their habitation. Human beings create more waste that, if not properly managed, affects the environment. This is why there is a need for population ethics to strike a balance so that the human impact on the earth is minimal. This paper argues that natural death and other forms of death, as long as they are not induced, have a place in mitigating overpopulation. The paper hermeneutically and analytically uses an Urhobo myth about death to propound this claim. The paper finds that overpopulation is a reality, and death is also a reality. It concludes that a stoic acceptance of death without undue prolongation of human life can contribute to creating an environmentally sustainable world.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1">¨</a><strong> Professor of Philosophy (Environmental Philosophy), Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. </strong><a href="mailto:drikeke@delsu.edu.ng"><strong>drikeke@delsu.edu.ng</strong></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mark Omorovie Ikeke Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 10 39 INTERPRETING PSALM 82 IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL INJUSTICE IN NIGERIA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/41 <p><em>Social injustice, a pervasive societal affliction, knows no bounds in terms of race or geography. Its crippling ramifications within Nigeria have become glaring, manifesting in a deteriorating economy, escalating insecurity, heightened youth unrest, and a relentless cycle of poverty. The dire state of education and healthcare underscores the distressing reality. Concurrently, income disparities continue to widen, casting a shadow of doubt over the prospect of any imminent closure of these gaps. This prevailing socio-economic landscape has seemingly propelled the popularity of three successive political campaign slogans - "change agenda," "next level," and "renewed hope" - touted by the present ruling political party. Hence, this paper delves into the hermeneutical significance of the enigmatic Psalm 82 in revitalizing Nigeria's ailing social fabric. Grounded in scholarly efforts that center on unraveling the identity of the 'elohim (gods) in verses 1 and 6 of the text, a historical-grammatical exegesis of verses 2-7 is conducted, drawing connections to the deprivation of healthcare, education, and socio-economic empowerment in Nigeria. The study employs a discussion analysis approach enriched by contextual hermeneutics to effectively contextualize the text's implications for Nigeria. The findings illuminate Psalm 82's original intent, namely, the reformation of the society for its initial audience through the conduit of leadership, leveraging the deeply ingrained religious sentiments within its socio-religious context. Furthermore, it underscores the cardinal role of social justice as a divine expectation from any human government. An appreciation of the devastating impact of social injustice on society, coupled with the prospect of divine retribution for errant leaders as delineated in Psalm 82, holds the potential to catalyze genuine change, usher in a more promising future, and materialize the long-elusive hope for improved living conditions for Nigerians.</em></p> Bamidele Olusegun Fawenu Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 40 88 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST AND EMU R'IYE EGO http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/42 <p><em>Most Christians perceive the Emu r'iye ego (meal of sacrifice or sacrificial meal)</em> <em>in Urhobo traditional religion as fetishism. At the same time, some Urhobo regard the Holy Eucharist as an external religious custom. This misunderstanding necessitates a comparative examination of both meals.</em> <em>The thrust of this article is to compare and contrast the Holy Eucharist and Emu r'iye ego in Urhobo traditional religion. To achieve this objective, the study employs descriptive and comparative research methods, including using a structured questionnaire. The study sampled 177 participants from 24 Urhoboland kingdoms, selected randomly from various cities and villages, and analyzed the data collected using a basic percentage formula. Results show that both meals have a religio-spiritual essence in their different contexts, and both meals are also similar in terms of fostering communal union, divine-human communion, and moral regeneration in human society. The paper concludes that even though the two rituals vary in terms of approach and methods, the Holy Eucharist and Emu r'iye ego are both demonstrations of personal and communal devotion and peace brokerage</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Peter O. Awharemuaire Festus O. Omosor Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 89 122 AN EVALUATION OF THE CO-EXISTENCE OF ADHERENTS OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION AND CHRISTIANITY IN EKPOMA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/43 <p><em>Nigeria remains the most populous black nation whose aim is to join the technologically developed nations of the world. To be able to achieve this, a peaceful co-existence among the various human contributors in the eco-system is paramount. Unfortunately, the Nigeria State is bedevilled by tremendous religious upheavals, threatening to tear the nation apart. Religion undoubtedly features incessantly as a core and divisive instrument in the Nigerian polity. This trend perhaps is occasioned by gross misunderstanding and intolerance disposition among adherents. Apart from being an important factor in the developmental process of a nation, peaceful co-existence features as an indubitable panacea to the threat of total disintegration of any given nation. The urgency to emphasize the unifying importance of religion and to save the Nigerian nation from total disintegration and consequent annihilation forms the main thrust of this paper. The research adopts historical and analytical research methods in the work towards the attainment of useful antidote for a holistic and peaceful coexistence in multi-religious society like Nigeria</em></p> Peter Alli Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 123 139 A PHILOSOPHICAL DISCOURSE ON THE PRE-CONDITIONS FOR MARRIAGE AND RITUALS OF DIVORCE AMONG THE OGONI OF EASTERN NIGER DELTA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/44 <p><em>Among the Ogoni of Eastern Niger Delta Nigeria, ii-ii wa (traditional marriage) is a sacred institution inextricably linked to their traditional religion, thus the intricate rituals before, during, and after the marriage process. However, divorce appears to be particularly prevalent among the modern generation. This has placed the institution of marriage in jeopardy, slowly losing its value, and eroding the pride and delights that the people once took in the institution of marriage. This paper analyzed the pre-conditions for marriage and rituals of divorce among the Ogoni. Using the descriptive method, the study argued that divorce is on the increase because the people have abandoned the pre-conditions for marriage and rituals of divorce as practiced in the Ogoni pre-modern society. Consequently, individuals often fake being in love, marry with or without their parents' permission, live together only when everything is going well, and choose to leave or separate when there are disagreements or when a difficult circumstance develops. This study recommended that the solution to the problem was not to keep people together in un-happy marriages, but to prevent unwise marriages. Thus, the need to revive the rituals attached to traditional marriage process.</em></p> Burabari Sunday Deezia Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 140 180 RELIGION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EXPLOITATION IN NIGERIA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/45 <p><em>Religion so permeates every facet of a Nigeria’s life that her social political and economic behaviour reflect religious influence. The proliferation of religious sects and worship places across the country is a testament to this strong religious affinity. However, despite Nigerians’ proclivity towards religion, religion which ought to be a transformative instrument, leveraged for the betterment of the society, has become one of the most effective ways through which they are exploited: an instrument of terror used to instill fear, manipulate and defraud people. This paper examines the shift from the use of religion as a transformative tool to its use as an exploitative tool in Nigerian society. It adopted historical and descriptive methods in its discussion. With a focus on the three major religions in Nigeria, data from diverse sources such as internet sources, journal articles, magazines, and archives were analyzed within the framework of the Karl Marx theory on religion to showcase the different ways religion has been used as an instrument of exploitation. The findings underscore that religion in Nigeria has been commercialized and has become an exploitation tool. It equally reveals that religion is not bad in itself rather it is the abuse of religion that leads to exploitation and manipulation. Hence, the study recommends improved education of the masses, good governance and effective laws and policies as possible means of curbing the abuses of religion.</em></p> Ratzinger E.E. Nwobodo Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 181 214 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THOMAS’ CHARACTER FOR CHRISTIANS IN UGHELLI DIOCESE (ANGLICAN COMMUNION): A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF JOHN 20:24-29 http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/46 <p><em>This research investigates the attitude of Thomas, a figure of controversy within Christianity, as depicted in John 20:24–29. The study posits that Christians should exercise caution in accepting false prophecies without subjecting them to rigorous scrutiny, notwithstanding the portrayal of a faithless disciple. The study employs a combination of historical, textual, hermeneutical, and phenomenological methodologies to examine the attitude of Thomas and its potential consequences for Christians within the Ughelli Diocese of the Anglican Communion in Nigeria. The research reveals that Thomas' capacity for critical reflection exceeded his initial expectations and contributed to a profound strengthening of his faith upon encountering the risen Christ. The study concludes that the trait of inquisitiveness should not be regarded as a negative Christian disposition but rather as an indispensable means to uphold a steadfast and authentic faith.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Philip Emokiniovo Esemiteye David T. Ejenobo Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 215 251 WOMEN’S PRIESTHOOD IN ANGLICANISM: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/47 <p><em>Despite their natural and spiritual capacities, women are excluded from ecclesiastical power in the Anglican Communion, especially, the priestly order. With a special emphasis on the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion), this article objectively examines the arguments on women priesthood. Discourse analysis, hermeneutical analysis, and historical methodologies are used in this study to critically explore the arguments for and against female priesthood in the Anglican Church. The research reveals that: (1) approximately 3% of the Anglican Communion globally forbids women from holding ordained positions, while two-thirds permit women to serve in traditional priesthood orders; (2) the notion that Jesus Christ is God's inferior often serves as the basis for opposition of women priesthood; and (3) the Scripture such as 1 Corinthians 11:8</em><em>‒</em><em>10; 1 Corinthians 14:</em><em>33</em><em>‒</em><em>35; 1Timothy 2:11</em><em>‒</em><em>14; 1Timothy 3:1</em><em>‒</em><em>2, etc. forbids women from being ordained as priests. Applying the liberal feminist theory, theology, and Christian complementarianism, the paper concludes that women should be ordained as priests to uphold their human</em><em> rights and interests in Christian service.</em></p> Ebenezer O. Aladegbami Daniel U. Onotere Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 252 287 GAUTHIERS’ MORAL CONTRACTARIANISM FOR A SUSTAINABLE POLITICAL ORDER IN NIGERIA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/48 <p><em>The Nigerian political system has shown a lack of stability and progress. This development has led to a 'bordering of morality'. This study exposes David Gauthier's moral Contractarianism to demonstrate the foundational role of morality in the erection of the political order in Nigeria. This study employs the philosophical method of analysis. The philosophical analysis will help to unearth that Gauthier's moral contract theory would enhance political order, progress, and the common interest of all if applied by policymakers. The study concludes that the placement of rational morality above individuals will orchestrate a political order and enrich stability, progress, and the attainment of the common good of humankind.</em></p> Grace Ogelenya Onos G. Idjakpo Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 288 309 A THEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN EWU KINGDOM http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/49 <p><em>The occurrence of domestic violence (DV) is widespread throughout the Ewu Kingdom of Nigeria, impacting couples of both Christian and non-Christian backgrounds. This is primarily attributed to the inadequacy of available social assistance, which leads to a higher likelihood for women to encounter victimization, which subsequently contributes to feelings of dissatisfaction and strained marital relationships. The present study aims to assess the occurrence of domestic violence perpetrated against women in the Ewu Kingdom of Nigeria, while also exploring religious remedies as potential solutions. This study uses phenomenological and descriptive research methodologies to investigate the lived experiences of women in the Ewu Kingdom. The study reveals that domestic violence against women is a complex issue often overlooked within religious establishments and aggravated by male dominance and excessive alcohol consumption. It concludes by highlighting the significance of biblical, social, and cultural values and proposing comprehensive measures at the community level to mitigate instances of violence. The study suggests that Christian churches should actively participate in addressing the issue of domestic abuse against women by providing counselling services and promoting the teaching of biblical principles regarding marital values.</em></p> Ovuomo Festus Azikiwe Peter O. O. Ottuh Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 310 358 A MODEL OF SERVANT LEADERS SUPPORTING RELIGIOUS MODERATION IN INDONESIA http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/53 <p><em>Religious radicalism is still widespread in Indonesia. Marked by various cases of church closures and the disbandment of Christian worship. The religious moderation launched by the Indonesian government through the Ministry of Religion in 2019 is expected to bring a more moderate, harmonious and tolerant religious paradigm to the land of Pancasila. The role of religious leaders is very important in spreading a new paradigm of religious moderation to ward off religious radicalism. This article aims to explain the role of Christian leaders in supporting religious moderation by emulating the servant leader model pioneered by the Lord Jesus through literary studies. The research results show that the servant leader model is able to become an agent of spiritual and social transformation and firmly uphold the constitution.</em></p> Jerry Rumahlatu Budiyono Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 3 2 359 384 CONCEPT OF IMAGO DEI, AND IMPLICATION FOR CHRISTIAN EDUCATION http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/52 <p><em>This article discusses the concept of Imago Dei, or "image of God," and its implications for Christian education. Imago Dei is a theological concept drawn from Bible verses, especially Genesis 1:27 and Colossians 1:15 and 3:10, that emphasizes the inherent dignity and worth of every human being as they are created in the image of God. The article explores the multidimensional understanding of Imago Dei, including its role in character building and spiritual development. The article highlights the importance of recognizing and respecting the spiritual dimension of individuals in educational settings, and the transformative goal of resembling Christ through spiritual and moral formation. The article also emphasizes the importance of aligning learning and knowledge acquisition with the character of God. Overall, the article underscores the holistic nature of Christian education, encompassing spiritual, intellectual, and leadership development.</em></p> I Putu Ayub Darmawan Yuli Purnamawati Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 3 2 385 417 EXPLORATION OF SWAMI VIVEKANANDA'S LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/54 <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif';">The realms of leadership and management (L&amp;M) constitute intricate phenomena crucial for reshaping contemporary society. Leadership studies (LS) and management studies (MS) stand as prominent academic disciplines, each operating within closely aligned landscapes. This work endeavours to portray Swami Vivekananda as an exemplar of spiritual servant leadership, showcasing his exceptional leadership qualities, visionary insights, and innovative ideas. While Swami Vivekananda never explicitly articulated his L&amp;M doctrine, his life exemplified profound leadership in action. This study culminates in a series of critical reflections and philosophical explorations, aiming to integrate Vivekananda's insights into a comprehensive L&amp;M framework. It lays the foundation for future research in this domain and anticipates the adoption of spiritual servant leadership by future leader-managers, heralding a paradigm shift in leadership philosophy.</span></p> Charles Berebon Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2024-02-07 2024-02-07 3 2 418 470 EXAMINING HISTORICAL MEMORY AND PEACEBUILDING: THE INTERPLAY OF POST-CIVIL WAR PEACE IN NIGERIA AND THE RISE OF NEO-BIAFRAN MOVEMENTS http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/55 <p><em>This paper delves into the dynamics of post-civil war peace in Nigeria following the conclusion of the Nigeria-Biafra War in 1970. It examines the resurgence of neo-Biafran movements advocating for the secession of the Igbo from the federation, decades after the defeat of the secessionist Biafra and its reintegration into Nigeria under the banner of national unity. The study explores how Nigeria’s post-war peacebuilding initiatives, centred around reconciliation, rehabilitation, and reconstruction policies, have influenced national citizenship, the distribution of the “peace dividend,” and the reintegration of the Igbo into the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It highlights the challenges of achieving lasting peace and reconciliation in the aftermath of conflict, particularly in contexts where state and nation-building are ongoing processes. By examining the relationship between memory and peacebuilding, this paper contributes to a deeper understanding of the complexities of post-conflict peace and calls for a reevaluation of approaches to studying and addressing memory in post-war contexts. </em></p> Felix Tabi Okorn Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 3 2 471 513 FULL ISSUE: Abraka Journal Of Religion and Philosophy, Volume 3 Number 2, 2023 http://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp/article/view/50 <p>The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2971–5989 (Print) 2971–5997 (Online) is a peer-review scholarly journal. A publication of the Department of Religious Studies and Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Delta State University, Abraka Delta State, Nigeria. The Journal is published biannually (July and December) in both print and online versions. AJRP publishes original papers, review papers, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, case studies, empirical research, technical notes, and book reviews in theology, religious studies and philosophy including other related areas of the humanities. We invite you to visit the journal website to read papers and items of interest at: https://abrakajournal.com/index.php/ajrp</p> Editorial Copyright (c) 2023 The Abraka Journal of Religion and Philosophy (AJRP) 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 1 417